With Henry Fonda in Fort Apache, John Ford, 1948. Of course I'm going to pick the most obviously auteurist option. (Although I would be remiss to not mention Temple was also a great favorite of Allan Dwan, who directed her in Heidi and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm in the late '30s, and that the feeling was mutual.)
Some wag once remarked that had she never existed, Graham Greene would not have written The Power and the Glory. (Look it up.) Western and particularly North American culture still goes into regular conniption fits over the ostensible sexualization of the child performer; and it is arguable also that had Temple never existed, Toddlers and Tiaras would not, either. She was an exceptional performer and by all accounts a bright and sane person, and she may have been her most on-the-mark critic when she put herself in the category of Rin-Tin-Tin, not by way of diminishing her own gifts, but in recognizing her precocious persona as a shiny object that could bring cheer to fed-up, downtrodden folks seeking distraction.